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राष्ट्रीय स्वास्थ्य मिशन

National Health Mission

Nutrition

Introduction

Nutrition is fundamental to human health and development and child malnutrition is a public health problem with major consequences for child survival, damaging the cognitive and physical development of children and the economic productivity of individuals and societies. Malnourished children are at greater risk of disease and more likely to grow up as malnourished adults. Malnutrition in children is represented by under-nutrition, characterized by stunting, wasting, underweight, micronutrient deficiencies including iron deficiency anemia as well as over-nutrition manifested as over-weight and obesity.

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is implementing RMNCAH+N strategy under National Health Mission (NHM), which includes various interventions to improve maternal and child health including nutritional deficiencies and anemia

Key Nutrition Indicators:

Indicator

NFHS 5 (2019-21)

Prevalence of Under-Nutrition

Percentage of children age 5 years who are stunted (Height-for-age)

35.5

Percentage of children age 5 years who are wasted (Weight-for-height)

19.3

Percentage of children age 5 years who are underweight (Weight-for-age)

32.1

Prevalence of Anaemia

Anaemia in Children (6-59 months)

67.1

Anaemia in Adolescent girls (15-19 years)

59.1

Anaemia in Women (15-49 years)

57.2

Anaemia in pregnant women (15-49 years)

52.2

Status of IYCF practices

Early Initiation of Breastfeeding

41.8

Exclusive Breastfeeding for six months

63.7

Timely introduction of complementary foods at 6-8 months

45.9

Key Nutrition Programmes

  • ANEMIA MUKT BHARAT (AMB):AMB is implemented to reduce the prevalence of anemia among children, adolescents and women in life cycle approach. The 6X6X6 strategy aims to reduce anaemia among six beneficiaries age groups through implementation of six interventions- Prophylactic Iron Folic Acid Supplementation; Periodic deworming; Intensified year-round Behaviour Change Communication Campaign; Testing of anemia using digital invasive haemoglobinometer and point of care treatment; Mandatory provision of Iron Folic Acid fortified foods in public health programmes; Addressing non-nutritional causes of anemia in endemic pockets, via six robust institutional mechanisms.
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  • NATIONAL DEWORMING DAY (NDD): To reduce the soil transmitted helminth (STH) infestation among children and adolescents (1-19 years) in the country, albendazole tablets are administered in a single fixed day approach via schools and anganwadi centres in two rounds (February and August) under National Deworming programme
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  • MOTHER’S ABSOLUTE AFFECTION(MAA): MAA programme focuses on promotion of optimum Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices including early initiation of breastfeeding within one hour (EIBF), exclusive breastfeeding up to six months, age appropriate and adequate complementary feeding after six months and continuation of breastfeeding for two years and beyond through capacity building of frontline health workers and comprehensive IEC campaigns.
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  • LACTATION MANAGEMENT CENTRES (LMC): LMCs are established at high delivery load facilities to provide comprehensive support for lactation management and ensure availability of safe pasteurized donor human milk and/or expressed mother’s own breast milk suitable for feeding sick, preterm and low birth weight babies. It includes Comprehensive Lactation Management Centres (CLMCs) and Lactation Management Units (LMUs).
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  • NUTRITION REHABILITATION CENTERS (NRCs): NRCs are facility-based interventions to provide medical treatment and nutritional management to under-five year children suffering from Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) with medical complications. In addition to curative care, special focus is given on timely, adequate and appropriate feeding for children; on improving the skills of mothers and caregivers on complete age-appropriate caring and feeding practices and Counselling and support to mothers is provided for identifying the nutrition and health problems in child.
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  • VITAMIN A SUPPLEMENTATION: Under Vitamin-A Supplementation programme, all children below five years of age (9-59 months) are given Vitamin-A supplementation bi-annually.